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Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) Acquisition Project of the Philippine Air Force

To improve the air defense cover of the country, the Philippine Air Force (PAF) embarked on the acquisition of several air defense assets, including air and land components that will form a system that are networked to each other.

Among those is the Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) Acquisition Project, which calls for the introduction of land-based medium range air defense missile systems to protect vital installations and create a secondary air defense cover after manned fighter aircraft.

The PAF has been eyeing such system for several decades now, although it was only from around 2012 that a serious consideration for the acquisition of such system was made.

The project was finally approved for actual implementation as part of the PAF's Horizon 2 Phase Priority Projects of the Revised AFP Modernization Program.

One of the SPYDER Philippines Air Defense System (SPADS) Missile Firing Unit during AFP joint Exercise Dagat Langit Lupa 2023 (AJEX DAGIT PA 2023). Photo credits to DWDD Radio.


Project Summary:

Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) Acquisition Project

Note: Edited as of 29 November 2023:

* End User: Philippine Air Force (960th Air and Missile Defense Group)

Quantity: 3 batteries

* Modernization Phase:
 Horizon 2 phase of RAFPMP


* Project ABC:
 Php6,846,750,000.00


Acquisition Mode: Government-to-Government (G2G) deal with Israeli Government


* Source of Funding: 
GAA Funds through AFP Modernization Program Trust Fund


* SARO Release: 

      - 1st Tranche: SARO-BMB-D-19-004325 dated 04 June 2019 worth Php1,027,012,500.00 (15% Downpayment), released 06 June 2019
      - 2nd Tranche: SARO-BMB-D-20-0011482 dated 09 June 2019 worth Php2,396,362,500.00, released 11 June 2020.
      - 3rd Tranche: SARO-BMB-D-21-0001136 dated 29 March 2021 worth 3,423,375,000.00, released 29 March 2021.

* Winning Proponent: Rafael Advance Systems Ltd. (Israel)

Product for Delivery:
     - 3 batteries of Rafael SPYDER-MR Air Defense System
     - Associated radar systems, command and control systems, support vehicles, and ammunition (Python 5 and I-Derby ER missiles)


* Contract Price: Php6,846,750,000.00

First post by MaxDefense: 18 June 2013


* Searching Hashtag: #PAFGBADSAcquisition

* Status: Notice of Award (NOA) released in favor of Rafael Advance Systems Ltd.
 Delivery of initial batch expected to start early-mid 2021. 1st tranche payment released in June 2019, 2nd tranche payment released in June 2020, 3rd tranche payment released April 2021. First batch of two batteries delivered as of 3rd quarter 2021. 1st batch delivery confirmed as of September 2022, and formally presented to Pres. Ferdinand Marcos Jr. on November 2022. 2nd batch delivery believed to have happened between September to November 2023.

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U P D A T E S:
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18 June 2013:

MaxDefense released its first blog entry regarding the offer and selection of the Rafael SPYDER Air Defense System to the Philippine Air Force to fulfill a requirement for a Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS).


A thorough discussion was made on the SPYDER ADS and its variants.

The blog entry can be accessed on the link below:

"Israeli SPYDER Air Defense Missile System for the Philippines - A Good Choice" - first posted on 18 June 18 2013



===============

19 August 2015:

MaxDefense posted a copy of an article from the Philippine News Agency 
which discusses the plans of the Philippine Air Force and their goals by 2022. It also mentioned its goal to have at least 6 GBADS in service by then. The following was copied directly from the article for safekeeping purposes due to PNA usually deleting old articles from its archives.

=====xxxxx=====

PAF to upgrade ISR systems

MANILA, Aug. 18 (PNA) -- The Philippine Air Force (PAF) announced that it is planning to upgrade and enhance its existing intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR) systems to cover the entire archipelago.

This was the reaction PAF chief Lt. Gen. Jeffrey Delgado when asked if the country is still able to maintain aerial surveillance of the West Philippine Sea.

"We will continue to pursue that but for the meantime we are using our current platforms, we have plans to enhance our ISR systems, to cover the whole Philippine archipelago," he added.

Delgado did not give other details on this matter.

The PAF "Flight Plan 2028" earlier stated that three more radar stations will be activated by 2028.

This will augment three existing radar stations located in Lubang, Occidental Mindoro; Pasuquin, Ilocos Norte; and Mount Salakot, Palawan.

Once activated, this will give the PAF the ability to monitor on a 24-hour basis, the country's aerial territory.

Proposed radar sites, which are expected to be on-line by 2028, are to be located at Panganiban, Camarines Norte; Balut Island, Guiuan, Samar and Anini-y, Antique.

At the moment, Gozar Air Station, which is located in Lubang town, Mindoro is now undergoing upgrades and modernization, to extend its operational life.

By 2028, as stated in "Flight Plans 2028," the PAF will be able to build up its capability to detect, identify, intercept and neutralize incursions from "Area Readiness 3 to Area Readiness 1."

"Area Readiness 3" refers to 51 to 74 percent of Philippine territory while "Area Readiness 1" means 100 percent of the country's territory which is estimated to be 40,000 square nautical miles.

The PAF will do it once its modern radar systems, long-range patrol aircraft (LRPAs), airborne early warning and control system (AEWCS), surface-attack aircraft (SAA) , light interim fighter trainers (LIFTs), multi-role fighters (MRFs) and missile defense systems (MDS) get online by 2028.

Detection capability will be provided by modern radar systems, and the LRPAs, identification of the threat will be done by the AEWCS, while interception capabilities will given by the SAA, LIFTs, and MRFs.

While neutralization will be done by the MDS should intruding aircraft intrude over land.

PAF spokesperson Col. Enrico Canaya said that this is the breakthrough goal of the Air Force.

The decision to made public "Flight Plan is aimed at informing the public of efforts to modernize the PAF and make it more relevant.

"And by 2022, (the PAF) will (have) already build up its capability to detect, identify, intercept and neutralize incursions in the PADIZ and the West Philippine Sea from 'Area Readiness 4' to 'Area Readiness 3'," Flight Plan 2028 stressed.

PADIZ is short for the "Philippine Air Defense Identification Zone and Area Readiness" which was established in 1953.

It covers the entire Luzon region, parts of Visayas, and locations north of Palawan.

"Area Readiness 4" refers to 50 percent of known Philippine territory while "Area Readiness 3" means 51 to 74 percent of Philippine territories (including PADIZ and the West Philippine Sea).

And by 2022, the PAF hopes to have in service 24 SAA and LIFTs, four LRPAs, six ADSRS (air-defense system radar systems) platforms, six ground based air defense systems, two AEWCS units, 12 MRFs, one C2C center, four electronic countermeasure aircraft, one AA (airborne aircraft) refueler, and four medium-to-heavy lift helicopters. (PNA)

LGI/PFN/EDS



===============

22 October 2016:

MaxDefense received information from its sources that the Philippine Air Force will be rolling the first phase of their Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) project earlier than scheduled, with the Medium Range Air Defense (MRAD) component coming in first with an approximate ABC of around Php 7 billion for 2 batteries, while the Short Range Air Defense (SHORAD) component will be coming in afterwards.

While preference is given on Rafael's SPYDER-MR ADS system, other competitors are pushing their products hard including Diehl Defense's IRIS-T SLM and LIGNex1's KM-SAM Cheolmae II, while a review for Russia's 9K37M1-2 Buk system could also be considered. India also offered their Akash missile system, while an exisiting offer for refurbished Hawk missile system is also in.place.

The new plan based on Pres. Duterte's policy changes under the development of a strategic deterent capability includes the acquisition of a "(singular) ground based air defense missile capability".


The IRIS-T SLM is among those being considered for the PAF's GBADS requirements. 

===============

28 November 2016:

Previously MaxDefense posted on the Philippine Air Force's Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) project, focusing on the Medium Range Air Defense (MRAD) component. But aside from that, the project also has a Short Range Air Defense (SHORAD) component which will be acquired separately but simultaneously. 

Among those being considered are Thales' ForceShield system using the Thales Starstreak missile and RapidRanger mount, IMI's Red Sky 2 using either the latest version of Poland's Grom or Russia's Igla-S missile system, MBDA's system revolving around the Mistral missile, and a system from LIGNex1 derived from the Pegasus KSAM system.

The Philippine Army also has its own projects on SHORAD and GBADS but will proceed later than that of the PAF's.


The Thales ForceShield System, which uses the Thales STARSTREAK VSHORAD System and the RapidRanger mounting. 

===============

11 December 2016:

Exclusive @ MaxDefense: A high level delegation led by DND ASec. Jesus Avilla and representatives from the AFP, all 3 major armed services, and Government Arsenal including GA Dir. Jonathan Martir left the country yesterday for Israel to attend a PH-Israel Joint Committee Meeting, and conduct industry visits. 


This is the second delegation in weeks to visit the Israeli arms industry and meet with Israel's Ministry of Defense - SIBAT. 

Among those scheduled to be visited are the facilities of:
* IAI-Ramta (Super Dvora), 

* Elta Systems Radar (PAF Air Defense Radar),
Rafael Advance Systems (PA & PAF GBADS), 
* IWI (arms & munitions production facility),
* Israel Shipyards (Shaldag and Sa'ar S-72),
* IMI (artillery production),
* and Elbit Systems (M113 upgrade & Hermes 450 UAV). 


Further updates will be provided once photos are made available.

===============

10 April 2017:

MaxDefense released a new blog entry discussing what options the Philippines has to help defend the country from missile attacks in light of North Korea's recent ballistic missile tests and threats.

"Defending against Ballistic Missile Attacks - What Options Does the Philippines Have?" - first posted on 10 April 2017


The Patriot PAC-3 anti-ballistic missile system. Photo taken from Military-Today.com.

While not directly related to GBADS, the GBADS is actually a step for the Philippines to move up the air defense ladder, considering it is actually looking at having a Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) capability in the future.

===============

14 October 2018:

The Department of National Defense reiterates recently the need to fast track the acquisition of Ground Based Air Defense Systems (GBADS) for the Philippine Air Force, as well as for other air defense requirements from the Philippine Army and Philippine Navy as part of the Horizon 2 phase of the RAFPMP. This is based on the DND's recent action plans, which determines the urgent projects that needs prioritization of implementation.

The PAF has a GBADS acquisition project, the PA has requirements to acquire MANPADS, while the PN is introducing ship-based surface-to-air missilr systems in its new ship acquisitions like the upcoming new frigate and new Corvette acquisition.


An example of MANPADS that the Philippine Army is planning to acquire. Photo for reference only.

===============

25 December 2018

The Philippine Air Force's 960th GBAD Group is the new unit of the PAF that would handle Ground Based Air Defense Systems in the near future.

In their Christmas display, they also have a display that includes a real-sized model of Rafael Python and Derby missiles, which are used by the Rafael SPYDER ADS that is said to have been selected by the PAF's GBADS acquisition project TWG. A hint by outgoing CGPAF Lt.Gen. Kintanar was also made during the change of command ceremony a few days ago wherein he mentioned that GBADS would be acquired from Israel. So far only the Spyder system was offered by Israel for the project.

The PAF has a program to acquire 3 batteries of short-medium range GBADS with an ABC of Php6,846,750,000.00 under the Horizon 2 phase of the RAFPMP.

Photos from community member Efraim Morota.



Photos provided to MaxDefense by community member and aviation photographer Efraim Morota. 

===============

26 December 2018:

MaxDefense released its blog entry on the project, as the Philippine Air Force's Technical Working Group (TWG) and leadership has selected Rafael's SPYDER MR Air Defense System for its Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) acquisition project.

The SPYDER ADS was selected over other offers from other countries which include the IRIS-T SLM from Germany's Diehl Defense, the KM-SAM Cheolmae II from South Korea's LIGNex1, and the 9K37M1-2 Buk missile system from Russia.

Based on information we gathered from sources, final negotiations are ongoing between the Department of National Defense (DND) and the Israel Ministry of Defense (IMOD). This means they are just ironing our details on the deal.

Being a G2G deal, MaxDefense expects the ABC of the project to be the Contract Price, as this has always been the case for several G2G projects with Israel.

MaxDefense expects the deal to cover the acquisition of at least 3 batteries.

The blog entry can be accessed on the link provided below:
"Philippine Air Force Selects the Rafael SPYDER Air Defense System for its GBADS Requirements" - first posted on 26 December 26, 2018



The PAF might be getting at least 3 batteries. Photo taken from Rafael's website.

===============

12 June 2019:

The Department of Budget and Management (DBM) released the first Special Allocation Release Order (SARO) for the GBADS Acquisition Project last 06 June 2019.

The amount covers Php1,027,012,500.00, or exactly 15% of the overall cost of the project. Usually all projects that are G2G with the Israeli government requires an initial 15% downpayment, with the rest of the payment spread through Multi Year Allocation payments.

The release of SARO for the deposit only means that the project is now expected to undergo awarding anytime soon, considering that the project is now backed up by appropriate funding.



Screenshot from the SARO listing of DBM as of 12 June 2019. SARO list taken from DBM website.

===============

02 July 2019:

As part of the Philippine Air Force's 72nd Founding Anniversary celebrations, the Commanding General PAF Lt. Gen. Rozzano Briguez confirmed that the Department of National Defense (DND) has already released the Notice of Award (NOA) for the Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) acquisition project. No further information was provided by the CGPAF.


Checking with sources, MaxDefense received confirmation that the NOA release was only made a few days ago, and was awarded in favor of Israel's Rafael Advance Systems Ltd. for the SPYDER Air Defense System.

MaxDefense is still trying to find out more details, but it is safe to assume that the value of the project is same as the ABC, which is Php6,846,750,000.00


===============

20 June 2020:

The Department of Budget and Management (DBM) released the 2nd Tranche of Multi-Year funding allocations for the GBADS Acquisition Project, with a SARO released for funding last 11 June 2020 under SARO-BMB-D-20-0011482 dated 09 June 2020, worth Php2,396,372,500.00.

This was after the national government approved its release last May 2020 as part of the Php16.3 billion allocation under Fiscal Year 2020 for the AFP Modernization Program
.

The GBADS Acquisition Project will be paid in 3 tranches, with the first one already released last June 2019 (see Update post dated 12 June 2019 just above this update). This is actually a good sign that the project is going on smoothly.

The 3rd tranche is expected to be released in 2021, which is just in time to cover the delivery of more than half the GBADS to the Philippine Air Force.


Screen grabbed from the 2020 SARO list from the DBM.

===============

03 October 2020:

In a blog entry released by MaxDefense Philippines, it was mentioned that the Rafael Spyder GBADS for the PAF are expected to arrive in 2021.

But there were new documents released by the DND for its report to the different agencies of the government that the system for delivery would be the shorter-ranged Spyder-ER (extended range), which uses the same launchers and radar system as the Spyder-SR (short range), but will be using a slightly longer-ranged version of the I-Derby missile called the I-Derby ER.

If true, this means engagement range would be reduced 60 kilometres on SPYDER-MR, to 40 kilometres for the SPYDER-ER.

More of the blog entry can be accessed on the link provided below:

"Philippine Air Force to start receiving its Rafael Spyder Ground-Based Air Defense System in 2021" - first posted on 03 October 2020.


The PAF's upcoming GBADS is essentially based on the Spyder-SR but will be utilizing the I-Derby ER, which makes the system the Spyder-ER. Despite that, it has less detection and engagement range than the Spyder-MR which was believed to be what the PAF originally wanted. Photo credits to Rafael Advance Systems.

===============

19 October 2020:

Based on the DND presentation made in the Senate during their 2021 Budget Hearing, the DND confirmed that among those to be funded by the GAA FY2021 funding worth Php33 billion would be the 3rd and final MYCA allocation for the GBADS Acquisition Project worth Php3,234,375,000.00.

This means that the GBADS are expected to be delivered to the PAF by 2021, as the final payment would already be prepared by the DND to Rafael Advance Systems.

===============

11 April 2021:

The 3rd tranche and final payment for the project worth Php3,423,375,000.00 has been released by the Department of Budget and Management on 06 April 2021. This means that full delivery is indeed only a matter of time. Based on previous documents, partial delivery is expected to happen by mid-2021, although it is highly possible that full delivery will be made within the year.


SARO for the 3rd tranche of the GBADS Acquisition Project. Grabbed from DBM's SARO list as of April 2021.


===============

16 October 2021:

MaxDefense Philippines confirmed the partial delivery and acceptance of at least a battery of SPYDER ground based air defense missile system to the Philippine Air Force 

The first info came several weeks ago but was made sure to check with several additional confirmations on this before posting about it.

It still remains to be seen if all 3 batteries were delivered, as pre-COVID reports to government agencies we obtained showed that all 3 batteries were expected to be delivered at the same time.

Initial info we received is that the systems that arrived were the SPYDER-MR (medium range) although we will validate this info further as other officials documents stated that it would be the ER variant.

These were bought as part of the PAF's Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) Acquisition Project under the Horizon 2 phase of the RAFPMP.

It will take some time before these air defense assets would become operational, as the PAF units will have to learn and train first on how to use these missile systems.

At best, we expect the first GBADS battery might only become partially operational by mid or late 2022. This is the first missile-based GBADS of the PAF, and will be armed with both Python 5 and I-Derby missiles from Rafael 

While the firing units are the main highlight of the system, we also appreciate the added air defense surveillance coverage provided by the radars included in the system.

===============

27 April 2022:

The Philippine Air Force inaugurated its new simulator training center for the SPYDER air defense system (SPADS), which was built in cooperation with the Israeli Ministry of Defense and Rafael Advanced Defense Systems Ltd.

The SPADS Simulator Training Center aims to provide training to PAF personnel in operating the SPYDER air defense system it acquired from Rafael under the PAF's Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) Acquisition Project, part of the Horizon 2 phase of the AFP Modernization Program.

This is a major milestone for the PAF as it builds up its overall capabilities and gain experience in missile and modern air defense technology.

Photo credits to anonymous source.


Also, a scale mock-up of a SPYDER-MR mobile launch unit was shown during the ceremonies, which could be a potential clue that the SPYDER-MR was indeed the one acquired by the Philippine Air Force, not the shorter-ranged SPYDER-ER as mentioned in DND documents.

The SPYDER-MR mock-up as shown during the ceremonies today. Photo credits to Israeli Embassy in the Philippines.

===============

27 September 2022:

First photos of some of the SPYDER Air Defense System components for the Philippine Air Force, including the Spyder MR missile firing unit, field supply vehicles, and missile supply vehicles.

These appear to be the first ever photos available of the PAF's SPYDER air defense system, which are now confirmed to be the SPYDER Medium Range (MR) variant.

The system uses the Czech-made Tatra 815-7 8x8 offroad heavy duty trucks, which is also a give-away to determine the variant used.

Usually the SPYDER Short Range (SR) or Extended Range (ER) uses smaller 6x6 trucks due to the launchers being shorter.

It remains to be seen and confirmed if the Radar Units and the Command and Control Units have been delivered as well, since the Radar is one of the most important feature to determine how capable the system is, being the SPYDER ADS' eyes and ears.

Photo credits to MaxDefense Philippines contributor who wish to remain unnamed.





===============

08 November 2022:

Our parent page MaxDefense Philippines posted about the new SPYDER Philippines Air Defense System (SPADS) from Israel's Rafael Advanced Defense Systems. 

Among its observations are as follows:

1. The variant is called the SPYDER Philippine Air Defense System (SPADS) which is a Philippine-spec variant of the SPYDER-MR medium range air defense system.

2. One typical battery consists of a Command and Control Unit (which houses the radar and communications system), 3 Missile Firing Units, a Field Service Vehicle Unit and a Missile Supply Vehicle.

3. The typical battery can be modified to have up to 6 Missile Firing Units, which is the maximum capacity the Command and Control Unit can manage.

4. The SPADS uses the Tatra 815-7 8x8 heavy duty truck, which is the first in the whole AFP.

5. Each Missile Firing Unit only has 4 launchers instead of 8 found in standard SPYDER-MR Missile Firing Unit. It remains to be seen if this can be improved to 8 missile cannisters. 

6. It also appears that the SPADS  uses the I-Derby missile for medium range interception, and the PAF appears to not have the Python V short range missile yet. It remains to be seen if the PAF did order the  Python V missile, or will keep SPADS as purely a medium range system.

7. The SPADS has the Command and Control Unit and Radar System combined in one truck, similar to the configurations found on the shorter-ranged SPYDER-SR or SPYDER-ER systems.

8. The radar system used in the SPADS is not the EL/M-2084 radar found on typical SPYDER-MR systems, not the smaller EL/M-2106 ATAR radar found on typical SPYDER-SR and SPYDER-ER systems. We are still determining what radar is the SPADS using.

9. Looks like only 2 batteries have been delivered by Rafael. It means that another battery is expected probably by 2023.








Photo credits to RTVM.


MaxDefense Philippines also observed the radar used by the SPADS, which is different from those offered by Rafael with its SPYDER air defense systems. The observation are as follows:

As we mentioned earlier, the radar system used on the SPYDER Philippines Air Defense System (SPADS) is not the EL/M-2084 MMR radar found on SPYDER-MR, nor the standard EL/M-2106 ATAR radar found on SPYDER-SR or SPYDER-ER.
Upon checking IAI Elta's product offering, it seems that the SPADS could be using 2 different radar systems combined into one.

The first is the EL/M-2138 Green Rock 3D AESA tactical radar, which is a new product from IAI Elta which can be used as a Counter Rocket, Artillery and Mortar (C-RAM) radar as well as an Air Defense Radar against low and high flying aircraft and drones.

It has 4 fixed antennas that covers 360°, and depending on size, can detect heavy mortar rounds up to 15kms, ultralight UAVs up to 60kms, and fighter aircraft up to 100kms. 

One of our contributor also believes it could be the new RADA nMHR next generation multi-mission hemispheric radar which have similar capabilities to EL/M-2138 Green Rock.

The 2nd part, which rotates on top of the radar system appears to be the IAI Elta EL/M-2106 ATAR, which provides redundancy to the radar system, and could be using a different antenna unlike what is seen normally which comprised of numerous but thinner panels 

The ATAR is a 3D solid state radar capable of detecting fighter aircraft up to 110kms and ultralight UAVs up to 60kms.

While both radars are still inferior to the EL/M-2084 MMR which we were hoping to be included in the SPADS as it can provide medium to long range air defense radar coverage in addition to the PAF's existing and future fixed and mobile radar sites, the new radar appears to be superior to those found originally in the SPYDER-SR and -ER variants.

It is also possible that the SPADS was related to the development of the new SPYDER All-in-One (AIO) which was only first presented by Rafael during the Singapore Airshow 2022 earlier this year.







===============

21 July 2023:

Photo below shows what was said to be part of another batch of delivery of SPYDER Philippines Air Defense System (SPADS) being transported to the port of Eilat in Israel for shipping to the Philippines as part of Rafael Advanced Defense Systems' contract under the Philippine Air Force's Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) Acquisition Project under Horizon 2 phase of RAFPMP.

Photo credits to Mikhail Kutusov. 


12 August 2023:

The Philippine Air Force concluded on 11 August 2023 the Missile System Officer Course for Class 04-23 "Tarantula" composed of 11 officers, 7 of which are from the Philippine Air Force, 2 from the Philippine Army and 2 from the Philippine Marine Corps.

It would be remembered that both the PA and PMC have their own planned air defense units, with acquisition of air defense assets among those included in the proposed Horizon 3 phase shopping list.

The training course was said to be the first tri-service missile system training conducted by the Armed Forces of the Philippines.




Photo credits to Philippine Air Force.

===============

06 September 2023:

One of the SPYDER-MR  Missile Firing Unit of the SPYDER Philippines Air Defense System (SPADS) is seen here during test firing of I-Derby-ER test missile round in Israel prior to delivery of the system to the Philippine Air Force.

The SPADS was acquired as part of the PAF's Ground Based Air Defense System (GBADS) Acquisition Project under the Horizon 2 phase of RAFPM

Photo screen grabbed from a video posted by the Philippine Air Force.

===============

29 November 2023:

The Philippine Air Force's 960th Air and Missile Defense Group deployed the SPYDER Philippines Air Defense System (SPADS) as part of AFP Joint Exercise Dagat Langit Lupa 2023 (AJEX DAGIT-PA).

It would be noticed that the missile launchers are still empty as it was since their delivery, which means the missile rounds have not yet been delivered. These are expected to be delivered together with the last batch of deliveries which will include the 3rd SPADS Battery and other associated components.









The first SPYDER Philippines Air Defense System (SPADS) were deployed to participate in the AFP Joint Exercise Dagat Langit Lupa 2023 (AJEX DAGIT PA 2023). Photo credits to DWDD Radio through Philippine Air Forces Unofficial II. 


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First edit and release: 08 June 2019
Copyright MaxDefense Philippines / Philippine Defense Resource


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